What causes this phenomenon has long baffled scientists, but in new research presented at this year’s Experimental Biology meeting, scientists may have identified the cause as a change in the brain’s blood flow associated with consuming cold drinks or desserts.
Researchers led by Jorge Serrador of Harvard Medical School and the War Related Illness and Injury Study Center of the Veterans Affairs New Jersey Health Care System induced brain freeze in 13 adults. They monitored subjects’ blood flow using diagnostic imaging while they sipped ice water with the straw pressing on the upper palate, and then while they sipped room-temperature water.
Participants raised their hands once the ice cream headache hit and then again when the pain went away. The researchers found that blood flow increased rapidly in one of the arteries of the brain at the onset of brain freeze, and diminished when the pain receded.
Serrador said in a statement that the study, which isn’t yet published, suggests that the increased blood flow can cause pain and the quick arterial constriction that follows may serve to bring pressure down.
He also explained that changes in blood flow to the brain may play a role in migraines and other types of headaches. If subsequent studies confirm these findings, they could have implications for treatment. Drugs that prevent the sudden arterial dilation could potentially be an effective remedy for these debilitating headaches.